Ethics an essay on the understanding of evil summary

Aristotle explains what he has in mind by comparing akrasia to the condition of other people who might be described as knowing in a way, but not in an unqualified way. We often succumb to temptation with calm and even with finesse.

For example, consider a juror who must determine whether a defendant is guilty as charged. A impetuosity caused by pleasure, B impetuosity caused by anger, C weakness caused by pleasure D weakness caused by anger.

Having read Book VI and completed our study of what these two forms of wisdom are, how are we better able to succeed in finding the mean in particular situations?

We must experience these activities not as burdensome constraints, but as noble, worthwhile, and enjoyable in themselves. Plato holds that either the spirited part which houses anger, as well as other emotions or the appetitive part which houses the desire for physical pleasures can disrupt the dictates of reason and result in action contrary to reason.

Aristotle explains what each of these states of mind is, draws various contrasts among them, and takes up various questions that can be raised about their usefulness. Perhaps such a project could be carried out, but Aristotle himself does not attempt to do so.

And why does this splitting always assign the same roles to the same sides? One might object that people who are Ethics an essay on the understanding of evil summary or who have moral deficiencies can experience pleasure, even though Aristotle does not take them to be in a natural state.

But the intermediate point that is chosen by an expert in any of the crafts will vary from one situation to another. Friendships based on advantage alone or pleasure alone deserve to be called friendships because in full-fledged friendships these two properties, advantage and pleasure, are present.

Ethics: An Essay on the Understanding of Evil

A few authors in antiquity refer to a work with this name and attribute it to Aristotle, but it is not mentioned by several authorities, such as Cicero and Diogenes Laertius, whom we would expect to have known of it.

The arithmetic mean between 10 and 2 is 6, and this is so invariably, whatever is being counted. He does not appear to be addressing someone who has genuine doubts about the value of justice or kindred qualities.

Translated by Peter Hallward. Good is defined simply as that which intervenes visibly against this Evil. But what is this right reason, and by what standard horos is it to be determined? Aristotle turns therefore, in X.

This state of mind has not yet been analyzed, and that is one reason why he complains that his account of our ultimate end is not yet clear enough.

The rights of man need to be equated with the ability of man to think rather than the possibility that he might die.

It tells the individual that the good of others has, in itself, no valid claim on him, but that he should serve other members of the community only to the extent that he can connect their interests to his own.

Theoria is not the process of learning that leads to understanding; that process is not a candidate for our ultimate end, because it is undertaken for the sake of a further goal.

It is important to bear in mind that when Aristotle talks about impetuosity and weakness, he is discussing chronic conditions. Even the apparently reflexive experience of myself is by no means the intuition of a unity but a labyrinth of differentiations, and Rimbaud was certainly not wrong when he said: It may seem odd that after devoting so much attention to the practical virtues, Aristotle should conclude his treatise with the thesis that the best activity of the best life is not ethical.

There is only the ethic-of of politics, of love, of science, of art. No one tries to live well for the sake of some further goal; rather, being eudaimon is the highest end, and all subordinate goals—health, wealth, and other such resources—are sought because they promote well-being, not because they are what well-being consists in.

If, for example, one is trying to decide how much to spend on a wedding present, one is looking for an amount that is neither excessive nor deficient. A standard or measure is something that settles disputes; and because good people are so skilled at discovering the mean in difficult cases, their advice must be sought and heeded.

He insists that ethics is not a theoretical discipline: This means that in order to be intelligible, ethics requires that the Other be in some sense carried by a principle of alterity which transcends mere finite experience.

Just as property is ill cared for when it is owned by all, and just as a child would be poorly nurtured were he to receive no special parental care—points Aristotle makes in Politics II.

Badiou advances three principles: The standard we should use in making comparisons between rival options is virtuous activity, because that has been shown to be identical to happiness.

Aristotle does not raise questions about what it is to desire good for the sake of another person. So it is clear that exercising theoretical wisdom is a more important component of our ultimate goal than practical wisdom.Summary Of The Aristotle Philosophy Of Virtue Ethics Philosophy Essay.

Print Reference this. for understanding the nature of virtue one has to determine the soul or spirit. Aristotle says soul or spirit has two components the rational and the irrational part.

Summary of the Aristotle philosophy of Virtue Ethics:. "Ethics: An Essay on the Understanding of Evil" was an interesting book to think about. It has both the neatness and novelty of Alain Badiou's philosophy, and the warring effrontery of his polemical writings/5.

Ethics: An Essay on the Understanding of Evil by Alain Badiou. Translated by Peter Hallward.

London and New York: Verso, Pp. $ cloth. Badiou is probably the most famous French philosopher not to have a major following in the Anglo-American academy—although this situation is surely.

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Aristotle's Ethics

Download Citation on ResearchGate | On Mar 19,Alain Badiou and others published Ethics: An Essay on the Understanding Of Evil }. Ethics, An Essay on the Understanding of Evil, Alain Badiou –––––– Alain Badiou Ethics, An Essay on the Understanding of Evil Chapter II: Does the Other Ex.

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Ethics an essay on the understanding of evil summary
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